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Reports and synthesis reports

For a list of publications in both Swedish and English, please see our Swedish website.

Publications in Swedish and English at

Nature-based solutions – what is the new concept about?


Authors: Helena Hanson, Johanna Alkan Olsson, Lisa Lorentzi Wall

About the report: The idea of using nature to solve environmental problems is not new – it is the concept nature-based solutions (NBS) that is new. Since long, solutions related to flooding, pollution of soil, water and air, and human health and wellbeing have been developed and implemented. These solutions usually have their dedicated scientific discipline, exploring how the solutions can be improved, and implemented. Many of the solutions also have their own practice, filled with knowledge on the practical implementation. Occasionally this science/practice area even has dedicated concepts, such as ecosystem-based adaptation and green infrastructure. The aim of this focus paper is to inform policy and decision makers about what the NBS concept is, how it is used and interpreted in science and practice, as well as its relation to other ecosystem-based green concepts. We ground the focus paper on a scientific literature review of peer-reviewed publications and a stakeholder analysis of Swedish actors at different societal levels and with different roles.

The report at

Restoring wilder landscapes for people and biodiversity 


Authors: Tobias Kummerle, Henrik G. Smith, Joris Cromsigt, Regina Lindborg, Jens-Christian Svenning, Carl-Gustaf Thulin. 

Open the report (PDF, 384 KB, new tab)

Methods for assessing the effects of plant protection products on biodiversity


Authors: Sandra Lindström | Georg Andersson | Lovisa Nilsson | Maj Rundlöf | Henrik Smith

About the report: Lund University was commissioned by the Swedish Chemicals Agency to map and describe approaches to develop methodologies for assessing the impact of plant protection products on biodiversity. The impacts to be considered were i) to what extent there are emerging methodological approaches to assess the indirect effect of plant protection products on individuals or populations, and ii) to what extent current risk assessment is sufficient to evaluate the direct effect of individual plant protection products on biodiversity. The commission also included proposing suitable methodology for assessing impacts of plant protection products on biodiversity. The relevant literature was mapped using a systematic search for literature to avoid bias in the selection of literature, and an inventory of emerging methods to assess indirect effects in other countries.

Open the report (PDF, 911 KB, new tab)

The importance of land-atmosphere biophysical interactions for regional climate and terrestrial ecosystem change - Improved understanding to inform Swedish national climate action


Authors: Wilhelm May | Paul A. Miller | Benjamin Smith

ISBN: 978-91-984349-3-4 (print) 
ISBN: 978-91-984349-4-1 (pdf) 

About the report: The synthesis aims to lay the foundation for an improved understanding of the biophysical influence of land-use and land-cover changes on regional climate and terrestrial ecosystem change in Sweden, and to outline a roadmap for developing tools that support the formulation of policies and decision-making by policymakers, taking these potentially significant effects into account. The additional information and support tools will enable holistic assessments of the Swedish national climate policy for regional climate and terrestrial ecosystems.

Open the report (PDF, 5,60 MB, new tab)

Collection of sources in separate documents:
Collection of sources_1 (PDF, 1,11 MB, new tab)
Collection of sources_2 (PDF, 264 KB, new tab)
Collection of sources_3 (PDF, 296 KB, new tab)
Collection of sources_4 (PDF, 304 KB, new tab)
Collection of sources_5 (PDF, 533 KB, new tab)

The work on this synthesis is supported by the FORMAS Research Council (grant number 2017-01895) as part of the National Research Programme on Climate.

An evaluation of analyses and data collection of winter loss in honey bees in Sweden


Authors: Ullrika Sahlin | Björn Klatt

ISBN: 978-91-984349-2-7

About the report: Swedish beekeeping rely on the health of honey bee Apis mellifera. Loss of colonies during winter is an indicator of poor honey bee health.This report evaluates current data collection of winter loss in honey bees in Sweden, with the purpose to give recommendations for future improvements. The report has been commissioned by the Swedish Commercial Beekeping Association.

Open the report (PDF, 2 MB, new tab)

Climate adaptation in densifying cities. Blue-green visions in Sofielund, Malmö, Sweden 


Authors: Johanna Alkan Olsson | Helena Hanson

About the report: Climate change is something that affects us all. For the city and its citizens, it means, among other things, more precipitation and consequently an increased risk of flooding. Therefore, it is important to work with climate change adaptation. The idea of this brief is to illustrate and discuss how blue-green solutions can contribute to adapting the city to a changing climate. It focuses on an already developed district: Sofielund in Malmö, Sweden. The brief is based on interviews with private property owners and managers in the district and has been developed through collaboration between two researchers at the Centre for Environmental and Climate Science, Lund University and landscape architects at COWI in Malmö.

Open the report (PDF, 3.4 MB, new tab)

Collective Implementation of Ecological Focus Areas


Authors: Juliana Dänhardt | Lovisa Nilsson | Jordan Hristov | Johanna Alkan Olsson | Mark Brady | Peter Olsson | Henrik G Smith | Yann Clough

ISBN: 978-91-620-6773-1

About the report: The report Collective implementation of ecological focus areas is written on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The report is based on ecological and economic modeling as well as interviews with farmers and civil servants in Sweden, the Netherlands and England.

Open the report (PDF, 877 kB, new tab)

What measures should be taken to improve conditions for Swedish Farmland Birds, as reflected in the Farmland Bird Index?


Authors: Åke Lindström, Ola Olsson, Henrik G. Smith, Martin Stjernman

Open the report (PDF, 4 MB, new tab)

Blue Carbon and Ecosystembased Adaptation: Mapping of Arenas


Author: Göransson, T

Keywords: Ecosystembased adaptation, Blue Carbon, the UNFCCC, systematic mapping, international diplomacy

ISBN: 978-91-981577-7-2

About the report: This mapping provides an overview of different types of arenas where the two concepts Ecosystembased adaptation (EbA) and Blue Carbon (BC) are discussed. This report looks at where these topics are negotiated and cotextualised, and displays how different arenas and actors are interlinked within and between these two issues.

High-resolution pdf of the report (20 MB, new tab) 
Low-resolution pdf of the report (10 MB, new tab)

Climate Services – Mapping of Providers and Purveyors in the Netherlands and Sweden 


Authors: Terese Göransson, Markku Rummukainen

Key words: climate services, climate information, climate data, the Netherlands, Sweden

ISBN: 978-91-981577-3-4

About the report: This report is a result of a cooperation project between Lund University in Sweden and the Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, KNMI, in the Netherlands. The overall aim of the project was to provide an initial mapping of providers and purveyors of climate services in the Netherlands and Sweden. In total, 64 organisations participated in the study, through questionnaire replies and/or interviews. The report presents the results of the mapping, including the use of the term climate services, existing climate services portfolios, how these services are developed and how they are communicated to the users of the services. It compares the Swedish and Dutch landscapes of the climate services provision, and also discusses their potential gaps and possible ways of enhancing the provision of climate services.

High-resolution pdf of the report (11 MB, new tab)


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Anna Maria Erling 
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