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Deniz Koca. Photo.

Deniz Koca


Deniz Koca. Photo.

Estimating critical extraction rates for the main metals for a sustainable society within the planetary limits


  • Harald Sverdrup
  • Kristin Vala Ragnarsdottir
  • Deniz Koca

Summary, in English

The critical rates of extraction of some metals was explored using a methodology based on the thinking behind critical loads for sulphur and nitrogen deposition developed in Europe 1990-2010. With a long term sustainability view in mind, critical rates based on 5,000 and 10,000 years were estimated and found to widely exceed the present extraction rates. Huge advances in recycling, as well as a significant contraction of metal demand would be required to reach no exceedence of the critical rates.


  • Centre for Environmental and Climate Science (CEC)

Publishing year




Document type

Conference paper: abstract