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Pollination and pest control in clover (CLOVER)

Two factors limiting seed production in clover are incomplete pollination and attack by seed eating pests. Clover is totally dependent on pollination by insects, mainly by bumble bees and honey bees. Without insect pollination, the clover seed yield becomes negligible. Clover is also attacked by seed eating pest insects, mainly Apion weevils. The weevils attack the clover flower heads and generally cause serious damage with observed yield losses of over 50 percent.


Weevils mating on a clover flower. Photo.

The overall aim in these projects is to better understand provision of pollination services and biological control of pests in clover seed production. Our work range from developing management schemes to enhance the ecosystem service pollination at the landscape, farm, and field levels to exploring chemical and biological methods to control pests. In our work we collaborate closely with farmers and seed companies.

CLOVER external project web page:

Control of pest insects in clover seed production –


Fieldwork in a clover strip. Photo.