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Deniz Koca. Photo.

Deniz Koca


Deniz Koca. Photo.

Modelling the copper, zinc and lead mining rates and co-extraction of dependent metals, supply, price and extractable amounts using the BRONZE model


  • Harald Sverdrup
  • Kristin Vala Ragnarsdottir
  • Deniz Koca

Summary, in English

The total resources form copper, zinc and lead was estimated from a reworking of the literature. The data was used as input to the integrated systems dynamics model BRONZE, and used to estimate the global supply of these metals and the by-products antimony, indium, germanium, tellurium, cadmium, bismuth and selenium. The runs show that copper, zinc and lead go through peak production around 2050 and declines as the resources run out some time after 2100, and with them the metals produced as by products become unavailable.


  • Centre for Environmental and Climate Science (CEC)

Publishing year




Document type

Conference paper: abstract