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Deniz Koca. Photo.

Deniz Koca


Deniz Koca. Photo.

Modelling the global primary extraction, supply, price and depletion of the extractable geological resources using the COBALT model.


  • Deniz Koca
  • Harald Sverdrup
  • Kristin Vala Ragnarsdottir

Summary, in English

The global supply of cobalt was simulated by combining 3 different system dynamics models; BRONZE, PGM and STEEL. The present use of cobalt shows a low degree of recycling and systemic losses are significant. The reserves of cobalt are not very large (20-25 million ton extractable) as compared to metals like copper, zinc or iron, and after 2170 cobalt will have run out under a business-as-usual scenario. The present business-as-usual for cobalt use in society is in no way sustainable


  • Centre for Environmental and Climate Science (CEC)

Publishing year




Document type

Conference paper: abstract